of Scientific Observers
Below are the abbreviations of the scientific observers in the Flower-Visiting Insect Database. These abbreviations are enclosed in parentheses and immediately follow the scientific name of the insect. They should not be confused with the authority who first assigned the scientific name to the insect. While these observations did not necessarily occur in Illinois in all cases, I have restricted the database to wildflowers and insect species that occur within or near the state (sometimes on an adventive basis). The large bulk of the observations in the database are from Charles Robertson's Flowers and Insects (1929). If there is no abbreviation in parentheses following an insect's scientific name, then the observer is Charles Robertson by default. Sometimes, more than one observer will independently report a flower-visiting insect for a plant species, in which case the abbreviations of such observers will be enclosed within parentheses. However, some information from Moure & Hurd, LaBerge, and Mitchell has been excluded because it is derived from Robertson's earlier observations; this is also true of some observations in Krombein et al. (1979). The publications of these observers are referred to in the Reference section.
(AB) = Anderson & Beare
Floral visitors of Trientalis borealis (Star-Flower) were observed in Michigan.
(AC) = Aspinwall & Christian
In this study, the floral visitors of Filipendula rubra (Queen-of-the-Prairie) are described. These observations occurred at a fen in Missouri.
(AH) = Anderson & Hill
Flower visitors of Hamamelis virginiana (Witch Hazel) were observed in Connecticut.
(Am) = O. Ames
According to Ames, Bombus pensylvanica visits the flowers of Spiranthes ochroleuca (Yellow Nodding Ladies' Tresses) in the New England area. This information can be found in Catling (1983).
(Arn) = Robert Arnold
Flower visitors of Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-Eggs) are described. This study was conducted in upstate New York during the 1970s or early 1980s.
(BH) = Barrett & Helenurm
Flower visitors of various woodland wildflowers are described. These observations occurred in New Brunswick, Canada, during the 1980s.
(Bht) = P. Bernhardt
Floral visitors of Schrankia nuttallii (Sensitive Brier) and Oxalis violacea (Violet Wood Sorrel) were observed in a tallgrass prairie. These observations occurred in eastern Kansas during the 1980s.
(BP) = Jane Bock & Steven Peterson
Flower visitors of Pulsatilla patens (Pasqueflower) are described. Their observations occurred in Colorado.
(Brt) = Robert I. Bertin
In one study, several birds and insects were found to visit the flowers of Campsis radicans (Trumpet Creeper) in east-central Illinois. In another study, Bertin describes several species of wildflowers that are important sources of nectar for Archilochus colubris (Ruby-Throated Hummingbird).
(BSW) = Bouseman, Sternburg, & Wiker
Skipper visitors are recorded for Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed) and other flowering plants, primarily in Illinois.
(Btz) = Robert Betz et al.
Betz and his associates restrict their observations to milkweeds in NE Illinois. Primarily bees, butterflies, and wasps are reported. Observations were recorded during the 1990s.
(BW) = Broyles & Wyatt
Floral visitors of Asclepias exaltata (Poke Milkweed) were observed in mountainous wooded areas of Virginia.
(CB) = Clinebell & Bernhardt
These observations occurred in several prairies and glades for five Penstemon spp. in Illinois, Missouri, & Kansas. Most insect visitors were bees.
(CC) = Crosswhite & Crosswhite
Observations are restricted to Osmia spp. (Mason bees) visiting the flowers of Penstemon spp. in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Missouri during the 1960s.
(Cin) = Nelis Cingula
This book describes pollinators of Platanthera flava (Tubercled Orchid) and many other orchids from around the world using citations from published sources of information.
(Cl) = Clinebell
These are observations of various insects visiting prairie wildflowers in Missouri.
(CK) = Catling & Knerer
These are observations of insects visiting the orchid Cypripedium candidum (White Lady's Slipper) in southern Ontario.
(Cmb) = Joshua Campbell et al.
Describes floral visitors of Apios priceana (Price's Groundnut) in northern Alabama in a study that was published in 2016.
(Cmp) = Diane R. Campbell
In this study, floral visitors of Stellaria pubera (Star Chickweed) and Claytonia virginica (Spring Beauty) were observed.
(Cn) = James Cane et al.
Floral bee visitors of Vaccinium stamineum (Deerberry) were observed in New York during the early 1980s. Habitats of this study included brushy thickets, brushy slopes, and open woodland.
(Cng) = Allen C. Conger
In this study, Conger observed insect visitors of several wildflowers at Cedar Point, Ohio, during the early 20th century.
(Cnt) = Cantlon et al.
Lists bumblebees as the pollinators of Melampyrum lineare (Cow-Wheat) in Michigan.
(Co) = F. Russell Cole
These are observations of insects visiting the flowers of Calopogon tuberosus (Grass Pink Orchid) in a bog.
(CS) = Cane & Schiffhauser
Describes some bee visitors to the flowers of Vaccinium macrocarpon (Large Cranberry) in New Jersey cranberry bogs.
(Cst) = Barbara Costelloe
Describes bumblebee visitors of Gentiana andrewsii and other wetland wildflowers in Ohio.
(Ct) = P.M. Catling
Insect visitors of several Spiranthes spp. (Ladies' Tresses Orchids) are reported. These observations occurred primarily in Ontario, Canada. Observations of other authors are also reported in this article for various Spiranthes spp.
(Da) = H.V. Daly
Daly describes some floral visitors of Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (False Dandelion) in Louisiana.
(Dk) = J.A. Duke
Floral visitors of Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng) are described.
(DL) = Discover Life
Publishes records of flower-visiting insects (mostly bees) and their hosts throughout North America. Only selected records of insects and plants have been used on the basis of their proximity to Illinois and the NE quadrant of the United States.
(Dv) = R.W. Davis
Bees visiting the flowers of Cypripedium acaule (Pink Lady's Slipper) are described.
(Dr) = Gregg Dieringer
Dieringer observed Bombus vagans visiting the flowers of Galearis spectabilis (Showy Orchis) in Ohio.
(EJ) = Edwards & Jordan
Describes floral visitors of Lilium philadelphicum (Prairie Lily) in Michigan.
(ET) = Estes & Thorp
In one study, floral visitors of Ludwigia peploides glabrescens (Creeping Primrose) were observed in Texas and Oklahoma. The habitats of this study were edges of ponds and sluggish rivers, where Creeping Primrose normally grows. In another study, floral visitors of Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (False Dandelion) were observed.
(Ev) = Francis C. Evans
Evan's observations occurred in an "old field" in southeastern Michigan, and are restricted to a few species of bees. These observations occurred during the 1980s.
(FG) = K. Fothergill & A. Vaughn
The nectar plants of some butterflies, skippers, and moths were observed at two state parks in SE Missouri during the 2000s.
(Flm) = R.C. Fleming
The nectar sources of adult sphinx moths are described; observations occurred prior to 1970.
(Gd) = M.J. Godfery
Godfery describes a few bees that visit the flowers of Spiranthes romanzoffiana (Hooded Ladies' Tresses) in Quebec. This information can be found in Catling (1983).
(Gnd) = Ralph Grundel et al.
Describes bee visitors of flowers in the Indiana Dunes and NW Indiana area. These observations occurred during the 2000s.
(GP) = Ralph Grundel & Noel Pavlovic
Their observations include the flowers visited by the Karner Blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, in NW Indiana near Lake Michigan. This occurred during the 1990s.
(Gr) = S. Graenicher
Graenicher's observations include a wide range of flower-visiting insects near Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His observations occurred during 1900-1908 in various habitats.
(Grm) = Joshua D. Groman
Several flower-visiting insects of Manfreda virginica (Eastern Agave) were observed in this study.
(Gsl) = D.C.L. Gosling
Describes flowers visited by long-horned beetles (Cerambycidae) in northern Michigan. This study occurred during the 1980s.
(Gu) = Guignard
Guignard reported observations of some flower-visiting insects for Platanthera psychodes (Purple-Fringed Orchid) and Cypripedium reginae (Showy Lady's Slipper) in an article that was published in 1886.
(H) = John Hilty
I include a few of my own observations in Urbana, Illinois. These observations are restricted primarily to butterflies, and a few species of skippers, day-flying moths, and beetles. Their time period is from 2001 to the present.
(HB) = L.D. Harder & S.C.H. Barrett
Lists the flower-visiting insects of Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed) in Ontario, Canada.
(HC) = Randall Haddock & Stephen Chaplin
Observations of insects that use Baptisia leucantha (White Wild Indigo) and Baptisia leucophaea (Cream Wild Indigo) as food plants, including flower visitors. This study was conducted in Missouri.
(Hck) = Hicks et al.
Floral visitors of Mitchella repens (Partridge Berry) were observed in New York and North Carolina during the 1980s.
(Hgn) = K.P. Hogan
The halictid bee Lasioglossum oblongus was observed visiting the flowers of Aplectrum hyemale (Putty-Root Orchid) in a woodland of east-central Illinois during the early 1980s.
(Hh) = Lorne Heshka
Floral visitors of Platanthera praeclara (Western Prairie White-Fringed Orchid) were recorded in a Manitoba prairie during the 1990s. Two sphinx moths were effective pollinators.
(Hm) = C.P. Herms
Observations of the flowers visited by the Karner Blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) in Michigan during the 1990s.
(HMF) = Joyce Hoffman & Brenda Molano-Flores
Two monolectic bees of Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed) were recently observed at a wet sand prairie in Illinois.
(HP) = Gary Hannan & Hewlett Prucher
Insects visiting the flowers of Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) were observed in SE Michigan during the 1990s.
(HPC) = Hilton Pond Center
This website describes insects visiting the flowers of Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) in the Piedmont region during the 2000s.
(Hpm) = Jeffrey Hapeman
Insects visiting the flowers of Platanthera peramoena (Purple Fringeless Orchid) were observed in Pennsylvania during the 1990s.
(Ilt) = Hugh H. Iltis
Iltis observed floral visitors of Napaea dioica (Glade Mallow). This study was conducted at a moist railroad prairie near Madison, Wisconsin during the summer of 1962.
(Irw) = R.E. Irwin
Describes floral visitors of Trillium erectum (Red Trillium) and Trillium grandiflorum (Large White Trillium).
(KC) = Klooster & Culley
Observed floral visitors of Monotropa uniflora (Indian Pipe) and Monotropa hypopitys (Pinesap) in Ohio and neighboring areas.
(KK) = Keddy & Keddy
Keddy & Keddy observed floral visitors of Cirsium pitcheri (Dune Thistle) during the 1980s. These observations occurred along the northern shore of Lake Superior in Ontario, Canada.
(KM) = Kranitz & Maun
A wide range of floral visitors were observed for Viburnum opulus opulus (Highbush Cranberry) in Ontario.
(KMC) = Kopper, Margolies, & Charlton
Describes the nectar plants of the butterfly, Speyeria idalia (Regal Fritillary), in a Kansas tallgrass prairie in 1996.
(Knb) = Frederick Knab
In this old article, Knab describes a small number of flowering plants that mosquitos visit for nectar, citing Graenicher, C. Robertson, and his own observations (around 1900).
(Kr) = Karl Krombein, Paul Hurd, David Smith, & B.D. Burks
For some bee species, these researchers describe the flowering plants that they visit in Vol.2 of Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico (1979). Some of these observations are from Robertson. Bees and plants that are not found in Illinois or other Eastern states in the area have been excluded from the database.
(LB) = Walter LaBerge
LaBerge's observations are confined to certain groups of bees; he also reports information from Robertson in his articles. The time period dates back to the 1950s.
(LBt) = Larson & Barrett
Floral visitors of Rhexia virginica (Virginia Meadow Beauty) were observed in Ontario during the 1990s.
(LDR) = Karen Little, Gregg Dieringer, & Michael Romano
Observations of Little et al. are restricted to insect visitors of Platanthera lacera (Green-Fringed Orchid) in west-central Illinois.
(Lnd) = Anne H. Lindsey
In this study, floral visitors of Thaspium barbinode (Hairy-Jointed Meadow Parsnip) and Thaspium trifoliatum (Meadow Parsnip) were observed in North Carolina during the 1970s.
(Lu) = C.A. Luer
Luer reports floral visitors of several orchid species in a book on North American orchids. Many of these observations are citations from Stoutamire, Catling, and other observers. Most of these observations occurred in either northeastern United States or southeastern Canada.
(Lv2) = John H. Lovell
Lovell lists the flower-visiting beetles of various plants in the New England area; this study was published in 1915.
(Lvn) = Donald A. Levin
Describes floral visitors of Lythrum alatum (Winged Loosestrife) and Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosestrife) in NE Illinois.
(Lvl) = John H. Lovell
Lovell describes floral visitors of several plant species in the Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family) in Maine; this study was published in 1900.
(Lw) = Alcinda C. Lewis
Describes several flowering plants visited by Pieris rapae (Cabbage White) in New York.
(LY) = Anneke Lisberg & Daniel Young
Describes flowers visited by tumbling flower beetles (Mordellidae) in Wisconsin.
(Mc) = L.W. Macior
Floral visitors of Delphinium tricorne, Dodecatheon meadia, Pedicularis lanceolata, and other plants were observed in several midwestern states during the 1960s and 1970s.
(Mch) = Theodore B. Mitchell
Mitchell's observations occurred primarily in North Carolina. He also reports the observations of Charles Robertson and Walter LaBerge. These observations were published in Bees of the Eastern United States, Vol. I-II, in 1960 and 1962. Mitchell restricts his observations to bees only.
(McK) = McKone et al.
Several bee visitors of Besseya bullii (Kittentails) were observed in the 1990s.
(McL) = D. Kelly McLain
Identified species of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Passiflora incarnata (Purple Passionflower). These observations occurred in Georgia.
(McR) = Ted C. MacRae
Lists Buprestid beetles that visit the flowers of various plants in Missouri.
(MH) = Jesus Moure & Paul Hurd, Jr.
Their observations are restricted to Halictid bees, and contains information from other observers (e.g., Robertson & Mitchell), in which case only the original observer is referred to. Only species of plants and bees that occur in Illinois are included in the database. Information is dated from about 1950-1980s (earlier, in the case of other observers).
(Mhr) = L.A. Mehrhoff
Floral visitors of the woodland orchid, Isotria verticillata (Whorled Pogonia), were observed in North Carolina during the early 1980s.
(MKHB) = R.J. Mitchell, J.D. Karron, K.G. Holmquist, & J.M. Bell
In a recent paper, these researchers describe the bumblebee species visiting Mimulus ringens (Monkey Flower). Their observations occurred at Saukville, Wisconsin.
(Mlv) = Christopher R. Mulvaney et al.
Flower visitors of Agalinis (Tomanthera) auriculata are described in Illinois, an uncommon prairie plant.
(MP) = C. McCall & R.B. Primack
Observed floral visitors of Lysimachia quadrifolia (Whorled Loosestrife) in Massachusetts.
(MR) = Charles Michener & Carl Rettenmeyer.
Their observations are restricted to the bee visitors of Erythronium mesochoreum (Prairie Trout Lily). This occurred during the 1950s.
(**, MS) = Unpublished Manuscript.
This refers to an unpublished manuscript that describes a new insect species. The asterisks refer to the last name or abbeviated last name of the author. For example, (Rb, MS) refers to an unpublished manuscript of Charles Robertson, while (Coquillett, MS) refers to an unpublished manuscript of Coquillett. To avoid confusion, I may change this to (**, unpublished) in the future.
(Mtt) = A.F. Motten
Floral visitors of Hepatica americana (Blunt-Lobed Hepatica) and other woodland spring wildflowers are reported. These observations occurred in wooded areas of North Carolina.
(Mwd) = Jonathan R. Mawdsley
Mawdsley describes several Checkered Beetles (Cleridae) that visit wildflowers in the prairies of central North America.
(MWH) = Jennifer Moddy-Weis and J.S. Heywood
The White-Lined Sphinx (Hyles lineata) is reported to be a floral visitor of Oenothera macrocarpa (Missouri Evening Primrose).
(NNE) = Ne'eman, Ne'eman, & Ellison
Some floral visitors of Sarracenia purpurea are described. These observations occurred in bogs that were located in Massachusetts.
(OS) = Osborn & Schneider
Floral visitors of Brasenia schreberi (Watershield) were observed in Texas.
(Ott) = James R. Ott
In this article, there are some observations of the floral visitors for Ludwigia alternifolia.
(Pel) = Olle Pellmyr
Describes the floral visitors of Actaea pachypoda (Doll's Eyes) and Actaea rubra (Red Baneberry) in Michigan during the early 1980s.
(Plw) = Plowright et al.
The bumblebee Bombus vagans was described as a flower visitor of Cypripedium acaule in New Brunswick, Canada.
(Pt) = Chris E. Petersen
Petersen's observations occurred in restored tallgrass prairies in NE Illinois during the 1990s. His observations are restricted to a few species of bees.
(Ptt) = Patt et al.
In this study, floral visitors of Peltandra virginica (Arrow Arum) were observed in swampy areas of SE Pennsylvania during the 1990s.
(QKA) = Quesada et al.
The floral visitors of Solanum carolinense (Horsenettle) were observed in NW Pennsylvania during the 2000s.
(Rb) = Charles Robertson
All of Robertson's observations occurred within 10 miles of Carlinville, Illinois. These observations occurred between 1880-1920, and were published in Flowers and Insects (1929). To my knowledge, Robertson attempted to identify all insect visitors regardless of their family affiliation.
(Rbs) = Diana B. Robson
This study describes the insect flower visitors of Dalea villosa (Silky Prairie Clover) in Manitoba, Canada. The study was published in 2014.
(Rd) = R.J. Reader
Floral visitors of bog and marsh plants in the Ericaceae (Heath family) were observed in southwestern Ontario during the 1970s. Observations consist of bees and a few flies.
(Re) = Catherine Reed
Reed's observations occurred at several prairie remnants in SE Minnesota during the early 1990s. A wide range of insects are listed as flower visitors.
(Rm) = C.T. Ramsey
Reports that Papilio polyxenes asterias is a flower visitor of Platanthera grandiflora (Large Purple-Fringed Orchid).
(Ry) = R.J. Reynolds et al.
Floral visitors of Silene caroliniana, Silene stellata, and Silene virginica are recorded. These observations occurred in Maryland and Virginia during the 2000s.
(SB) = Sheviak & Bowles
Flower-visitors of the prairie orchids Platanthera leucophaea and Platanthera praeclara are reported.
(Sch) = Daniel J. Schoen
Floral visitors of Diervilla lonicera (Bush Honeysuckle) were observed at several sites in Michigan during the 1970s.
(SDO) = Brent Steury, Sam Droege, & Erik Oberg
Recorded bee species visiting wildflowers at a riverside outcrop prairie in Virginia during the 2000s.
(Shm) = Schemske et al.
Floral visitors of several spring wildflowers were observed in woodlands of east-central Illinois during the 1970s.
(SJ) = Schneider & Jeter
Floral visitors of Cabomba caroliniana (Fanwort) were observed along a river in Texas.
(Sls) = Mark A. Schlessman
Describes floral visitors of Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng).
(Sm) = E. Small
Floral visitors of several bog plants were observed by Small near Ottawa, Canada.
(Smh) = Beverly A. Smith et al.
Describes bee visitors of wildflowers in the Black Belt Prairie of Mississippi during the 2000s.
(Smm) = Sarah J. Semmler
Lists the floral preferences of the Poweshiek Skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek) in Manitoba.
(SS) = Gordon R. Smith & G.E. Snow
These are observations of insect visitors for the orchids Platanthera blephariglottis (White-Fringed Orchid) and Platanthera ciliaris (Orange-Fringed Orchid).
(St) = Andrew G. Stephenson
Observed floral visitors of Catalpa speciosa (Northern Catalpa) in Indiana during the 1970s.
(Std) = Standley et al.
Bee visitors of the flowers of two North American Chimphila spp. were observed by Standley et al. during the 1980s.
(Stk) = Jon M. Stucky
Bee visitors of Ipomoea hederacea (Ivy-Leaved Morning Glory) and Ipomoea purpurea (Common Morning Glory) were observed in North Carolina during the summer of 1980.
(Stm) = W.P. Stoutamire
In one article, floral visitors of Platanthera psychodes (Purple-Fringed Orchid) and Platanthera grandiflora (Large Purple-Fringed Orchid) are reported; in another article, Stoutamire describes pollinators of several Cypripedium spp. (Lady's Slipper Orchids).
(Sw) = Ann B. Swengel & Scott R. Swengel
Describes the nectar plants of the rare butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Karner Blue), in the northern Midwest. These observations occurred during the 1990s.
(Swg) = Ann B. Swengel & Scott R. Swengel
Describes the nectar plants of several prairie skippers (Hesperiidae) in the upper Midwest from 1988-1997.
(Th) = Leonard B. Thien
Two Aedes spp. of mosquito were observed to be effective pollinators of Platanthera obtusata (Blunt-Leaved Orchid).
(Thr) = John W. Thieret
These are observations of bee visitors to the flowers of Proboscidea louisianica (Unicorn Plant). This occurred in a sandy field in Oklahoma.
(Tll) = Juliana Tuell et al.
Bee visitors of native wildflowers in Michigan that are grown for conservation programs. This study was conducted during the 2000s.
(TM) = Thien & Marcks
Bees visiting the flowers of three orchid species are described. These observations occurred in bog habitat of northern Wisconsin. Thien & Marcks also mention in passing that they observed bumblebees visiting the flowers of Polygala paucifolia (Gaywings) and Sarracenia purpurea (Northern Pitcher Plant).
(TMP) = Thomson, Maddison, and Plowright
Thomson et al. observed bumblebees and other floral visitors of Aralia hispida (Bristly Sarsaparilla) in New Brunswick, Canada.
(TOC) = Todd, Owen, and Coons
Todd et al. observed floral visitors of Stylisma pickeringii pattersonii (Patterson's Bindweed) in sand prairies of central Illinois.
(Tr) = William Trelease
Trelease described a few insects that perforate flowers to steal nectar from various plant species.
(Trt) = Elena Tartaglia
Describes flowers visited by day-flying hummingbird moths (Hemaris spp.) in New Jersey.
(Trv) = Steven E. Travers et al.
Describes Sphinx moth flower visitors of the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid in North Dakota.
(TU) = Thien & Utech
Several Aedes spp. of mosquito and some Geometer moths were observed to be effective pollinators of Platanthera obtusata (Blunt-Leaved Orchid).
(V) = Edward G. Voss
Recorded nectar plants for various butterflies and skippers in 2 counties of northern Michigan during the 1940-1950s.
(Vgt) = C.A. Vogt
Observed a Syrphid fly and a Scarab beetle visiting the flowers of Cypripedium reginae (Showy Lady Slipper) in a Vermont fen.
(Vn) = Grant Verne
Lists Sphinx moths (Sphingidae) visiting flowers of different species of plants.
(VR) = Voss & Riefner
A Pyralid moth was found to be a pollinator of Platanthera obtusata (Blunt-Leaf Orchid) in the Great Lakes region.
(WA) = Wesselingh & Arnold
In this study, floral visitors of Iris brevicaulis (Wild Blue Iris) and Iris fulva (Copper Iris) were observed in wetland areas of Louisiana.
(WB) = Willson & Bertin
Floral visitors of Asclepias verticillata (Whorled Milkweed) were observed by Willson & Bertin in east-central Illinois during the 1970s.
(WF) = Shelly Wiggam & Carolyn Ferguson
Insect visitors of Phlox divaricata were recently recorded in Wisconsin; see Reference Section for citation of article by Wiggam & Ferguson (2005).
(WH) = Wyatt & Hellwig
A few floral visitors of Houstonia caerulea are described.
(Wlm) = S.A. Williams
S.A. Williams describes two bees as floral visitors of Triphora trianthophora (Three-Birds Orchid).
(Wm) = Andrew H. Williams
A.H. William's observations occurred near Madison, Wisconsin, and are restricted to Onosmodium molle (Marbleseed). This occurred during the 1980s.
(WMc) = Dennis Whigham & M. McWethy
These observations are restricted to insect visitors of Tipularia discolor (Cranefly Orchid) in Maryland.
(Wms) = Andrew H. William
Records the flowers visited by Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Pennsylvania Soldier Beetle). This study was published in 2006.
(WO) = Wisconsin Orchids
This website describes pollinators of some Wisconsin orchids from the author's own observations and various cited sources of information.
(Ws) = Tyler Wist
Floral visitors of Echinacea angustifolia (Prairie Purple Coneflower) were observed in Saskatchewan, Canada.