Flowering Plants Visited
by Apis mellifera


Apis mellifera Linnaeus: Apidae (Apinae), Hymenoptera
(Observations are from Robertson, Graenicher, Reed, Betz et al., Baskin et al., Michener & Rettenmeyer, Bock & Peterson, Hilty, Evans, Petersen, Stephenson, Williams, Clinebell & Bernhardt, Clinebell, Smith & Snow, Catling, Bernhardt, Motten, Schemske et al., Stoutamire, Standley et al., Osborn & Schneider, Aspinwall & Christian, Luer, Lindsey, Willson & Bertin, Bertin, Estes & Thorp, Cane et al., Small, Reader, Cane & Schiffhauser, Todd et al., Macior, Wist, Ott, Irwin, Steury et al., Grundel et al., Tuell et al., Lovell, Reynolds et al., Verne, Mulvaney et al., and Wilhelm & Rericha.)

Acanthaceae: Justicia americana sn fq (Rb); Aceraceae: Acer negundo cp fq (Rb), Acer platanoides sn (WR), Acer saccharum cp [oozing sap] fq (Rb, WR); Alismataceae: Sagittaria latifolia [stam sn] [pist sn] (Rb); Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus spinosus cp fq (Rb); Anacardiaceae: Rhus copallinum [pist sn fq] [unsp] (Rb, Gnd, WR), Rhus glabra [pist sn fq] (Rb), Toxicodendron radicans (WR); Apiaceae:
Angelica atropurpurea (WR), Cicuta maculata sn (Rb, WR), Daucus carota (WR), Erigenia bulbosa sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Eryngium yuccifolium sn (Rb, Gnd, WR), Heracleum maximum sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Osmorhiza longistylis sn (Rb), Oxypolis rigidior sn (Rb), Pastinaca sativa sn (Rb), Polytaenia nuttalli sn (Rb), Sium suave sn (Rb), Taenidia integerrima sn (Rb), Thaspium barbinode (Lnd), Zizia aurea sn cp (Rb, Tll, WR); Apocynaceae: Apocynum cannabinum [plpr sn] [plup sn] (Rb, Tll, WR); Aquifoliaceae: Nemopanthus mucronatus (Sm); Araliaceae: Aralia racemosa (Lvl); Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias amplexicaulis [plup sn] (Btz), Asclepias hirtella [plpr sn] (Rb), Asclepias incarnata [plpr sn fq] [plup sn fq] (Rb, Btz, Tll), Asclepias meadii [plup sn] (Btz), Asclepias purpurascens [plpr sn] (Rb, Btz), Asclepias sullivanti [plup sn fq] [dead] (Btz, Rb), Asclepias syriaca [unsp sn fq] [dead] (Btz, Rb, WR), Asclepias tuberosa [plpr sn fq] (Rb, Btz, Gnd), Asclepias verticillata [plpr sn] [plup sn fq] (Rb, Btz, WB, SDO); Asteraceae: Ageratina altissima sn cp fq (Rb, Gr, WR), Ambrosia trifida cp fq (Rb), Antennaria neglecta [stam sn cp] (Gr, Ev), Antennaria plantaginifolia [stam sn] [pist sn] (Rb), Arctium lappa sn cp (Gr), Arctium minus sn (Rb), Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (Tll, WR), Arnoglossum muhlenbergii sn (Rb, Gr), Aster anomalus sn cp (Rb), Aster drummondii sn (Gr, WR), Aster dumosus (Pt, Gnd), Aster ericoides sn cp (Rb, Pt, Re, Gnd, WR), Aster firmus (WR), Aster furcatus sn (Rb), Aster laevis sn (Gr, Pt, Tll, WR), Aster lanceolatus sn fq (Rb, Gr, H, Gnd, WR), Aster lateriflorus sn fq (Rb, WR), Aster macrophyllus sn (Gr), Aster novae-angliae sn cp fq (Rb, Gr, Tll), Aster oolentangiensis (Gnd, WR), Aster patens (SDO), Aster pilosus sn cp fq (Rb, H, Gnd), Aster prenanthoides sn (Gr), Aster puniceus (WR), Aster sagittifolius sn fq (Rb), Aster salicifolius sn (Rb), Aster turbinellus sn cp fq (Rb), Aster urophyllus (WR), Bidens aristosa sn (Rb), Bidens bipinnata sn cp fq (Rb), Bidens cernua sn fq (Rb, WR), Bidens coronata (WR), Bidens frondosa sn (Rb), Bidens polylepis (WR), Boltonia asterioides sn cp fq (Rb), Carduus nutans (WR), Cichorium intybus (WR), Cirsium altissimum sn cp (Rb, Gr, WR), Cirsium arvense sn cp (Gr, WR), Cirsium discolor (WR), Cirsium hillii (WR), Cirsium pitcheri (WR), Cirsium vulgare (WR), Conoclinium coelestinum sn (Rb), Coreopsis lanceolata (WR), Coreopsis palmata sn cp (Rb, WR), Coreopsis tripteris sn cp (Rb, Gnd), Doellingeria umbellata fq (Gnd, WR), Echinacea angustifolia (Ws), Echinacea pallida sn cp (Rb, WR), Echinacea purpurea sn fq (Rb), Erechtites hieracifolia sn fq (Rb, WR), Erigeron philadelphicus sn (Rb), Erigeron strigosus sn (Rb), Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus (WR), Eupatoriadelphus maculatus (WR), Eupatoriadelphus purpureus sn fq (Rb, Gr), Eupatorium altissimum sn fq (Rb, H, WR), Eupatorium perfoliatum fq (Tll), Eupatorium serotinum sn cp fq (Rb, SDO), Euthamia graminifolia sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Euthamia gymnospermoides (Gnd), Helenium autumnale sn cp (Rb, Gr), Helianthus annuus sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Helianthus decapetalus (WR), Helianthus divaricatus sn fq (Rb, Gnd), Helianthus giganteus sn cp (Gr, WR), Helianthus grosseserratus sn fq (Rb, WR), Helianthus mollis (WR), Helianthus occidentalis (Gnd, WR), Helianthus strumosus sn cp (Gr), Helianthus tuberosus (WR), Heliopsis helianthoides sn cp (Gr, Re, WR), Hieracium caespitosum (WR), Hieracium gronovii (WR), Ionactis linariifolius (Gnd, WR), Krigia biflora sn cp fq (Rb), Lactuca floridana sn cp fq (Rb), Leucanthemum vulgare sn cp (Gr), Liatris aspera (Gnd, WR), Liatris cylindracea (WR), Liatris pycnostachya sn fq (Rb, Cl, WR), Liatris scariosa nieuwlandii (WR), Liatris spicata (Gnd, WR), Oligoneuron ohioense (WR), Oligoneuron rigidum sn (Rb, Ev, Re, WR), Polymnia canadensis (WR), Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium sn (Rb), Pyrrhopappus carolinianus cp (ET), Ratibida pinnata sn cp (Gr, Tll, WR), Rudbeckia hirta sn (Rb, Ev, WR), Rudbeckia laciniata sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Rudbeckia subtomentosa sn (Rb, WR), Rudbeckia triloba sn cp (Rb), Silphium integrifolium sn cp (Rb), Silphium laciniatum sn (Rb), Silphium perfoliatum sn cp fq (Rb, Tll, WR), Silphium terebinthinaceum sn cp fq (Rb, Gnd, WR), Solidago spp. (Gnd), Solidago caesia (Gnd), Solidago canadensis sn cp fq (Rb, Gr, Pt, Re, Gnd, WR), Solidago gigantea (WR), Solidago juncea sn cp (Gr, WR), Solidago missouriensis sn (Rb), Solidago nemoralis sn cp fq (Rb, Ev, SDO, Gnd, WR), Solidago patula sn/cp (WR), Solidago riddellii fq (Tll, WR), Solidago rugosa (Gnd, WR), Solidago sempervirens (WR), Solidago simplex racemosa (SDO), Solidago speciosa sn fq (Rb, Re, Gnd, Tll, WR), Solidago uliginosa sn/cp (WR), Solidago ulmifolia (WR), Sonchus arvensis (WR), Tanacetum vulgare sn (Gr), Taraxacum officinale sn cp fq (Rb), Verbesina alternifolia sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Verbesina helianthoides sn cp fq (Rb), Vernonia baldwinii (WR), Vernonia fasciculata sn (Rb, WR), Vernonia gigantea (Gnd), Vernonia missurica fq (Tll, WR); Balsaminaceae: Impatiens capensis sn cp prf sn@prf fq (Rb, Lvl); Berberidaceae: Berberis thunbergii (WR), Jeffersonia diphylla cp (WR), Podophyllum peltatum cp (Rb); Bignoniaceae: Campsis radicans sn cp (Brt), Catalpa speciosa sn np (St); Boraginaceae: Echium vulgare (WR), Mertensia virginica cp (Rb), Onosmodium molle (Wm); Brassicaceae: Alliaria petiolata (WR), Arabis shortii sn cp fq (Rb), Barbarea vulgaris (WR), Capsella bursa-pastoris sn fq (Rb), Dentaria laciniata sn cp fq (Rb, Shm, WR), Rorippa teres sn fq (Rb); Cabombaceae: Brasenia schreberi cp np (OS); Cactaceae: Opuntia humifusa fq (Gnd); Caesalpiniaceae: Chamaecrista fasciculata [flwr cp fq] [exfl sn] (Rb, WR), Gleditsia triacanthos sn cp fq (Rb); Campanulaceae: Campanulastrum americanum sn (Rb, WR), Lobelia puberula (SDO), Lobelia spicata sn (Rb), Lobelia siphilitica (Tll); Cannabinaceae: Humulus japonicus cp np (H); Caprifoliaceae: Diervilla lonicera sn fq (Lvl), Lonicera oblongifolia sn (Gr), Lonicera reticulata sn (Gr), Sambucus canadensis cp fq (Rb), Sambucus racemosa cp (Lvl), Symphoricarpos albus sn (Gr), Symphoricarpos occidentalis sn (Gr), Symphoricarpos orbiculatus sn fq (Rb, WR), Viburnum alnifolium (Lvl), Viburnum lentago fq (Lvl, WR), Viburnum prunifolium sn cp (Rb); Caryophyllaceae: Cerastium fontanum sn (Rb), Cerastium nutans sn fq (Rb), Silene caroliniana (Ry), Stellaria media sn (Rb); Celastraceae: Celastrus scandens (WR); Commelinaceae: Tradescantia ohiensis swf/cp fq (Rb, Gnd, WR), Tradescantia virginiensis cp (Rb); Convolvulaceae: Cuscuta glomerata sn/cp (WR), Ipomoea pandurata sn (Rb), Stylisma pickeringii pattersonii (TOC); Cornaceae: Cornus alternifolia sn fq (Lvl), Cornus canadensis fq (Lvl), Cornus mas (WR), Cornus obliqua sn cp fq (Rb), Cornus racemosa sn cp fq (Rb), Cornus sericea (Lvl); Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita pepo sn cp fq (Rb), Echinocystis lobata [unsp sn] (Rb), Sicyos angulatus [unsp sn fq] (Rb); Dipsacaceae: Dipsacus fullonum (WR), Dipsacus laciniatus (WR); Ebenaceae: Diospyros virginiana [stam sn cp fq] [pist sn fq] (Rb); Ericaceae: Andromeda glaucophylla fq (Rd), Chamaedaphne calyculata sn fq (Rd), Gaultheria procumbens (Lvl), Gaylussacia baccata (Sm), Ledum groenlandicum (WR), Vaccinium corymbosum (Gnd), Vaccinium macrocarpon sn cp fq (Rd, CS), Vaccinium myrtilloides sn fq (Sm, Rd), Vaccinium pallidum (WR), Vaccinium stamineum fq (Cn); Fabaceae: Amorpha canescens (WR), Amorpha fruticosa (WR), Apios americana sn/cp (WR), Astragalus canadensis sn (Rb), Astragalus tennesseenis sn (BBQ), Baptisia leucantha (WR), Baptisia leucophaea (WR), Baptisia tinctoria (WR), Cercis canadensis sn cp fq (Rb), Dalea candida sn (Rb), Dalea purpurea sn cp fq (Rb), Dalea villosa (Rbs), Glycine max (WR), Lespedeza capitata (Gnd), Lespedeza hirta (WR), Lotus corniculatus (WR), Lupinus perennis (Gnd), Melilotus alba sn fq (Rb, Re), Melilotus officinalis fq (Gnd), Orbexilum onobrychis sn fq (Rb), Robinia pseudoacacia sn (Rb, WR), Securigera varia (WR), Trifolium hybridum sn cp fq (Rb, Gnd, WR), Trifolium pratense (WR), Trifolium repens sn fq (Rb), Vicia americana (WR); Fumariaceae: Dicentra cucullaria cp fq np (Rb, WR); Gentianaceae: Frasera caroliniensis sn fq (Rb), Gentiana andrewsii sn@prf np (WR), Gentiana puberulenta sn/cp (WR), Gentianella quinquefolia sn sn@prf (WR), Gentianopsis crinita sn/cp (WR), Gentianopsis virgata (WR); Geraniaceae: Geranium maculatum sn (Rb, WR); Grossulariaceae: Ribes cynosbati sn (Gr), Ribes missouriense sn cp fq np (Rb, WR); Hamamelidaceae: Hamamelis virginiana (WR); Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus glabra (WR), Aesculus parviflora sn (WR); Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophyllum appendiculatum sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Polemonium reptans sn cp fq (Rb); Hypericaceae: Hypericum perforatum cp (WR), Hypericum prolificum cp (WR); Lamiaceae: Agastache foeniculum (Re), Agastache neptoides sn cp fq (Rb, Tll, WR), Agastache scrophulariaefolia sn fq (Rb, WR), Ajuga reptans (WR), Blephilia ciliata sn fq (Rb), Blephilia hirsuta sn fq (Rb), Glechoma hederacea sn fq (Rb), Lycopus americanus sn fq (Rb), Lycopus virginicus (SDO), Marrubium vulgare sn fq (Rb), Monarda bradburiana sn fq (Rb), Monarda fistulosa sn@prf cp np (Rb, Ev, Re, Cl), Monarda punctata fq (Gnd, Tll, WR), Nepeta cataria sn fq (Rb, Re), Pycnanthemum pilosum sn fq (Rb), Pycnanthemum tenuifolium sn fq (Rb, Gnd), Pycnanthemum virginianum sn fq (Rb), Scutellaria lateriflora (WR), Stachys pilosa (WR), Teucrium canadense sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Thymus pulegioides (WR); Liliaceae: Allium cernuum sn cp fq (Gr, Tll, WR), Allium tricoccum sn (Gr), Asparagus officinalis sn (Rb), Camassia scilloides sn fq (Rb), Erythronium albidum sn cp fq (Rb, Shm, WR), Erythronium americanum (WR), Erythronium mesochoreum (MR), Polygonatum pubescens sn (Gr), Scilla sibirica (WR), Smilacina racemosa cp (Rb, WR), Smilacina stellata sn (Gr), Tofieldia glutinosa sn (Gr), Trillium grandiflorum sn cp (Irw); Lythraceae: Decodon verticillatus (WR), Lythrum alatum sn fq (Rb), Lythrum salicaria (Gnd, WR); Malvaceae: Abutilon theophrastii sn (Rb), Alcea rosea sn cp (WR), Callirhoe involucrata (WR), Hibiscus moscheutos (WR), Malva neglecta sn fq (Rb); Mimosaceae: Schrankia nuttallii cp (Bht); Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo lutea cp fq (Rb); Nymphaeaceae: Nymphaea tuberosa (WR); Oleaceae: Fraxinus americanus cp fq (Rb); Onagraceae: Gaura biennis sn cp (Rb), Ludwigia alternifolia (Ott), Ludwigia peploides glabrescens sn cp (ET), Oenothera biennis sn cp fq (Rb), Oenothera speciosa (Vn); Orchidaceae: Calopogon tuberosus exp (Lu), Cypripedium pubescens exp (Stm), Platanthera blephariglottis sn (SS), Spiranthes vernalis sn (Ct); Oxalidaceae: Oxalis corniculata sn (Rb), Oxalis violacea sn (Rb); Papaveraceae: Sanguinaria canadensis cp fq (Rb, Shm, Mtt); Parnassiaceae: Parnassia glauca sn (Gr); Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca americana sn (Rb, WR); Poaceae: Zea mays cp np (Rb); Polygonaceae: Antenoron virginianum sn (WR), Persicaria coccinea (WR), Persicaria hydropiperoides sn (Rb, WR), Persicaria pensylvanica sn cp (Rb, H), Persicaria punctata sn (Rb); Portulacaceae: Claytonia virginica sn cp fq (Rb, Shm, Mtt); Primulaceae: Dodecatheon meadia cp (WR); Pyrolaceae: Chimaphila maculata sn (Std); Ranunculaceae: Aconitum uncinatum (WR), Anemone patens multifida cp (BP), Anemonella thalictroides sn (Rb), Aquilegia canadensis sn cp (Mc), Clematis virginiana [stam sn] (Rb), Enemion biternatum cp fq (Rb, Shm), Hepatica acutiloba cp fq (Rb), Hepatica americana cp (Mtt), Ranunculus abortivus sn (Rb), Ranunculus fascicularis sn (Rb), Thalictrum dasycarpum cp np (Rb); Rhamnaceae: Ceanothus americanus (Gnd), Rhamnus lanceolata sn (Rb); Rosaceae: Amelanchier arborea sn cp fq (Rb), Crataegus coccinea sn cp fq (Rb), Crataegus crus-galli sn cp fq (Rb), Crataegus holmesiana (WR), Crataegus mollis sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Filipendula rubra cp fq (AC), Fragaria virginiana sn (Rb), Malus coronaria sn fq (Rb), Pentaphylloides floribunda (Tll), Potentilla recta (WR), Prunus americana sn cp fq (Rb), Prunus serotina sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Rosa setigera cp fq (Rb, Tll), Rubus allegheniensis sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Rubus alumnus (WR), Rubus avipes (WR), Rubus bellobatus (WR), Rubus flagellaris sn fq (Rb, Ev), Rubus michiganensis (WR), Rubus occidentalis sn fq (Rb, WR), Rubus semisetosus (WR), Sanguisorba canadensis cp (WR), Spiraea alba fq (Tll, WR), Spiraea tomentosa (WR); Rubiaceae: Cephalanthus occidentalis sn fq (Rb), Houstonia lanceolata sn (Rb), Houstonia longifolia sn (Ev); Rutaceae: Ptelea trifoliata sn cp fq (Rb), Zanthoxylum americanum [stam sn cp fq] [pist sn fq] (Rb); Salicaceae: Populus deltoides cp fq (Rb), Populus tremuloides cp fq (Rb), Salix amygdaloides [stam sn cp fq] [pist sn fq] (Rb), Salix discolor [unsp sn] (Gr), Salix fragilis (Sm), Salix humilis [stam cp] [pist sn fq] (Rb), Salix interior [stam sn] (Rb), Salix myricoides [unsp sn/cp] (WR), Salix nigra [stam sn cp fq] (Rb), Salix rigida [stam sn cp fq] [pist sn fq] (Rb); Santalaceae: Comandra umbellata sn (Rb); Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga pensylvanica sn (Gr); Scrophulariaceae: Agalinis tenuifolia sn cp fq (Rb), Aureolaria flava (Gnd), Aureolaria pedicularia fq (Gnd), Collinsia verna sn cp fq (Rb), Dasistoma macrophylla sn cp (Rb, WR), Linaria vulgaris sn cp np (Rb), Pedicularis lanceolata (WR), Penstemon digitalis sn (Rb), Penstemon hirsutus (Tll), Penstemon pallidus sn (CB), Scrophularia marilandica sn fq (Rb, Tll, WR), Tomanthera auriculata sn cp (Rb, Mlv), Verbascum thapsus cp (Rb, WR), Veronicastrum virginicum sn fq (Rb, Cl, Tll); Smilacaceae: Smilax herbacea [stam cp] (Rb), Smilax tamnoides hispida sn cp (Rb); Solanaceae: Datura stramonium tatula cp fq np (Rb); Staphyleaceae: Staphylea trifolia sn cp fq (Rb); Tiliaceae: Tilia americana sn fq (Rb, WR); Typhaceae: Typha latifolia cp (WR); Ulmaceae: Ulmus americana cp fq (Rb), Ulmus rubra cp fq (Rb); Verbenaceae: Verbena bonariensis (WR), Verbena engelmannii (WR), Verbena hastata sn fq (Rb, Re, WR), Verbena stricta sn fq (Rb, Re, Tll, WR), Verbena urticifolia sn (Rb); Violaceae: Viola cucullata sn (Rb), Viola pedata sn (Rb), Viola striata sn np (Rb); Vitaceae: Vitis vulpina cp (Rb)


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