Flower-Visiting Insects
of White Clover


Trifolium repens (White Clover) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, while other insects suck nectar; according to Robertson, butterflies, skippers, & moths are non-pollinating; observations are from Krombein et al., Lewis, and Fothergill & Vaughn as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus bimaculatus sn cp, Bombus griseocallis sn cp, Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn, Anthophora ursina sn cp; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Epeolus interruptus sn, Triepeolus remigatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia rosae sn, Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn fq, Nomada articulata sn, Nomada superba superba sn fq; Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidium psoraleae sn cp fq; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn fq, Coelioxys sayi sn fq; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp fq, Megachile centuncularis sn, Megachile mendica sn, Megachile texana sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis cylindricus sn cp fq, Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp fq, Osmia atriventris sn cp fq, Osmia collinsiae sn cp, Osmia conjuncta sn cp fq, Osmia cordata sn, Osmia distincta sn cp, Osmia pumila sn cp fq; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades variolosa variolosa sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp fq, Agapostemon virescens sn cp, Augochlorella aurata sn, Augochlorella striata sn fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp fq, Halictus ligatus sn cp, Halictus parallelus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda sn cp fq, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena crataegi (Kr), Andrena cressonii sn cp; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn cp fq

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicnae): Microbombex monodonta; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila pictipennis, Ammophila procera, Prionyx atrata; Scoliidae: Campsomeris plumipes

Flies
Empididae: Empis clausa; Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps, Parabombylius coquilletti, Systoechus vulgaris; Conopidae: Physocephala texana, Physocephala tibialis, Stylogaster biannulata, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Archytas analis

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis, Danaus plexippus (FV), Euptoieta claudia (Rb, FV), Phyciodes tharos (FV), Vanessa virginiensis; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus, Everes comyntas (Rb, FV), Strymon melinus (FV); Papilionidae: Papilio glaucus (FV), Papilio marcellus (Rb, FV); Pieridae: Colias philodice, Nathalis iole (FV), Pieris rapae (Rb, Lw), Pontia protodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Amblyscirtes aesculapius (FV), Ancyloxypha numitor, Epargyreus clarus (Rb, FV), Erynnis horatius (FV), Erynnis juvenalis, Euphyes vestris (FV), Pholisora catullus, Polites peckius, Polites themistocles fq, Thorybes pylades

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera; Yponomeutidae: Atteva punctella (FV)


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